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The New Age, Volume 15 (May 7 to October 29, 1914): An Introduction
by Rentfrow, Daphné


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The central topic in this volume is, of course, the outbreak of hostilities inaugurating what would become known as the Great War. The first issue is published in the week of May 7, and by July 1st, Archduke Ferdinand, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, is dead, assassinated in the streets of Sarajevo by Serb nationalist Gavrilo Princip. The loyal reader of The New Age would have seen such an event coming, as over the years S. Verdad had dedicated nearly every one of the "Foreign Affairs" column, in some part, to the troubles in the Balkans. The reader of this volume must keep in mind, however, that the war would last another four years and that all the topics covered will be debated and re-debated for almost fifty months yet; the more one knows of the war, the more fruitful this volume will be. Please refer to our World War One links off the Students Resource Page for more information, including maps, time-lines, battles, and literature.

Perhaps even more interesting and revealing than the journal's coverage of the war is its coverage of much more mundane topics: the arts are still debated, theatre continues, books are still published and read, political debates go on as before. The pages of this volume offer much insight into the ways in which the war did and did not interrupt life in London, and they also do much to dispel the myth of the idyllic Halcyon days of peace and calm before the war-though certainly the war brought death, violence, loss, and all the other detritus of warfare, The New Age was never ignorant of the other violence taking place in South Africa, Ireland, the workers' world, and throughout the realm. The journal then reveals two important truths: that life continued as always as the war quickly escalated, and that the pre-war days were already days of unrest.

Important for the reader of this volume is to know that the war brought with it vehement anti-German sentiments, attacks on the degenerate Kultur of the country that was capable of producing a Kaiser and a Nietzsche. The latter in fact would be given much of the blame for the war (keyword search "Nietzsche" and/or peruse "Letters" of all volumes). Dr. Oscar Levy's "Nietzsche and this War" 17:393 rejects the popular tendency to blame the philosopher for the war and German militarism; No. 26 features a political cartoon by Ray Lewis which depicts a comical Kaiser reading the Daily Mail with the headlines "The Nietzsche War! The Kaiser Nietzsche's Pupil!" to which the Kaiser replies "Nietzsche! Nietzsche! I must read that fellow." Also in No. 26, the piece "Nietzsche and Germany" reproduces excerpt's from his work, most of them anti-war and anti-militarism. As reports of German atrocities began to arrive in London (much if not all of them having since been proven to be fabrications, exaggerations, or fictions of the government's propaganda machine), it became quite fashionable to denounce all things German. The New Age mocks this throughout many of its pages, taking a highly ironic tone toward patriotism and anti-Kultur attacks. It is important to note, however, that there are instances where this distance collapses and anti-German sentiment and nationalist confidence reveal themselves to be just at home in the pages of this journal as elsewhere, especially in "Letters to the Editor" and in "Military Notes." These moments will be noted at length below.

Aside from war concerns, this volume is of particular interest for the debate between A.E.R., M.B. Oxon, and occasionally M.D. Eder, around Freud's "On Dreams," a debate which continues throughout the volume in the columns of "Readers and Writers," "Views and Reviews," separate articles, and in the "Letters." In art, discussions of the Futurists and Wyndham Lewis' Blast are perhaps the most heated and most revealing. Other world events that are noted and discussed in the pages of the journal are those related to Ireland, National Guilds, Mexico and India.

Names to Know While Using this Volume

    J.J. Mallon
  • Parliamentary correspondent of the "Labour Reader" and a member of the I.L.P. (International Labour Party); the volume references his writings and opinions on labour
  • Robert Cecil
  • Independent Conservative in the House of Commons; is fifty at the outbreak of the war, goes to work for the Red Cross, and eventually becomes undersecretary of foreign affairs and primary planner of the League of Nations; awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1937
  • Herbert Kitchener
  • the famous face of the “Your Country Needs You!” recruitment poster; field marshal, secretary of state for war; by the end of 1915 will have expanded the expeditionary force from 160,000 to 2.25 million; as early as 1914 he warned that the war would be long (he estimated three years) and that victory would be determined by the last million men Britain could put into battle; most famous for "Kitchener's armies," the enlisted men and volunteers that he trained as professional soldiers in an attempt to avoid the conscription that would become necessary in late 1915; Kitchener, also Baron Kitchenener of Khartoum and of Aspell, Commander in Chief during the South African/Boer War, drowned when the HMS Hampshire, en route to Russia, was sunk by a German mine June 5, 1916
  • Robert Blatchford
  • founder of the Manchester Fabian Society and of The Clarion; socialist who surprised his party by declaring support of the Boer War and opposing the WSPU (Women's Social and Political Union) and NUWSS (National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies): warned of German "menace"; by end of war had abandoned the Left and become staunch Conservative; his opinions are attacked widely throughout the pages of the volume
  • Jean Jaurés
  • French socialist, politician and writer that helped shape modern French socialism; author of Socialist History of French Revolution, edited left-wing newspaper L'Humanité; advocated for arbitration with Germany rather than violence; assassinated 31st July 1914 by young French nationalist
  • Alexander von Kluck
  • Commander of the German 1st Army that invaded Belgium; successfully took Brussels and Antwerp, drove the British back at Mons, but was outmaneuvered at the Marne; wounded in 1915, retired 1916

Events and Things to Know

    B.E.F.
  • British Expeditionary Force; created after the Boer War by Richard Haldane as a type of standing army in the case of foreign wars; mostly professional soldiers, numbering about 120,000 at the outbreak of the war
  • White Paper
  • Government documents put out by various offices on various topics; in this Volume, the most important is the German White Paper (17:404; 24:579) which includes telegram exchanges between Sir Edward Grey and the French Ambassador on the eve of the war as well as other exchanges; C. H. Norman reproduces excerpts from the White Paper "Correspondence respecting the European War" in 15:343, which evokes reactions throughout the other issues, especially in the "Letters"
  • "Kitchener's Armies"
  • enlisted men and volunteers who were to be trained as professional soldiers in order to avoid conscription (see Kitchener above): volunteers signed on for three years or the duration of the war, whichever was shorter
  • Triple Entente
  • Alliance of Great Britain, France and Russia which was to form the nucleus of Allied Powers during the war
  • Liège
  • city in Belgium attacked by Germans on August 5th 1914, and which remained under German control throughout the war
  • Mons
  • a town in southwestern Belgium, the site of the first battle between British and German forces (under von Kluck) at the end of August which ended in the infamous "Retreat from Mons" in which the British sustained heavy losses; also known for the "Angels of Mons" myth in which soldiers swore to seeing ghosts of Agincourt Bowmen defending them as they escaped the pursuing Germans; story circulated widely in the press until Arthur Machen wrote his book "The Bowmen and Other Legends of the War" in which he claimed credit for the legend; Harold Begbie (author the 1915 "Kitchener: Organizer of Victory," among many other titles) and others attacked Machen for attempting to discredit the appearance of angels; the legend is still debated today; The New Age criticizes the Times and other papers for publishing tales of the Angels as fact (26:618)
  • Conscientious objectors or “conchies”
  • pacifists opposed to violence in any form who protested the war from very early on; as the war progresses, the punishment for c.o's will become more and more severe (see 17:404)

Events by Month

    May

    3
  • Russia: Duma votes for 5% increase in military budget
  • 4
  • Mexico: rebels quit peace conference, and Huerta is threatened by new revolt (02:029, 01:006)
  • 6
  • Mexico: Huerta offers to step down if US will intervene and pacify Mexico
  • 6
  • Britain: House of Lords rejects woman's suffrage bill (07:147; 08:186, )
  • 8
  • Mexico: captured American soldier is executed by federal troops at Vera Cruz (08:006)
  • 10
  • France: Socialist victory at legislative elections
  • 11
  • Morocco: French troops occupy Taza (20:472)
  • 14
  • Mexico: Rebels take Tampico
  • 25
  • Britain: Offer to Ireland for limited autonomy

    June

    4
  • Britain: mine and railway unions join construction strike, total two million workers (05:097; 20:470)
  • 7
  • First cargo vessel transits Panama Canal
  • 9
  • US: Wilson re-establishes arms embargo to Mexico
  • 13
  • Greece: Formal announcement of intent to annex islands of Chios and Mityelene; Greco-Turkish war expected
  • 13
  • Russia: Rasputin stabbed (13:302; 16:365;
  • 15
  • Europe: Holland, Switzerland, Denmark and Sweden form league for defense (18:414)
  • 24
  • Mexico: rebels report capture of Zacatecas with loss of 2,000 men, while Mexican/American peace conference continues at Niagara Falls (04:078)
  • 26
  • Black South African delegation protests Native Land Acy, which passed in 1913 and gave all but 7 percent of South Africa's land to whites
  • 28
  • Sarajevo: Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip assassinates Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to Austro-Hungarian throne, and his wife the Duchess of Hohenberg (06:125; 10:220; 15: 343; 16:367; 19:441; 20:472; 21:505)
  • 30
  • Vienna: Anti-Serbian riots

    July

    3
  • US: Telephone line installed between New York and San Francisco
  • 5
  • Germany: Wilhelm II reasserts alliance with Austria-Hungary
  • 15
  • Mexico: President Huerta leaves office under US pressure, Francisco Carbajal succeeds
  • 15
  • France: President Poincaré visits Russia to discuss crisis in Balkans
  • 22
  • Mexico: Constitutionalists and Carbajal sign agreement to end hostilities
  • 22
  • Russia: strikes in St. Petersburg, over 160,000 out
  • 23
  • Austria: preparations to invade Serbia, ultimatum sent to demanding reparations for archduke's assassination
  • 25
  • Russia: declaration to defend Serbian sovereignty
  • 27
  • Ireland: British troops invade Dublin to disarm rebels
  • 28
  • Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia
  • 29
  • Russia: mobilization of over one million troops
  • 29
  • Austria bombs Belgrade
  • 31
  • US: New York Stock Exchange closes, after closing of exchanges in Paris, St. Petersburg, and South America
  • 31
  • Albert I announces general mobilization despite opposition from Belgian cabinet

    August

    1
  • Germany declares war on Russia, first shots of the war are fired
  • 2
  • Russia invades Germany; Germany moves into France, Luxembourg, Switzerland
  • 3
  • Germany declares war on France, invades Russia
  • 3
  • German naval cruiser Augsburg bombs Russian Baltic port of Libau in first naval battle of the war
  • 3
  • Italy declares neutrality
  • 4
  • Germany invades Belgium; England declares war on Germany, asserts protection of Belgium and French coast
  • 5
  • US declares neutrality and offers to be mediator in Europe
  • 6
  • Austria declares war on Russia, Serbia on Germany
  • 9
  • Germany and Austria threaten Italy with war if maintains neutrality
  • 9
  • France invades Alsace
  • 12
  • France and Britain declare war on Austria-Hungary
  • 15
  • Panama Canal formally opened to all traffic
  • 16
  • Liège, Belgium, falls to Germans (15:340; 18:413; 20: 467; 21:494; 25: 588)
  • 16
  • Tsar offers autonomy to Poland
  • 19
  • British Expeditionary Force lands in France (15:354; 18:413)
  • 20
  • England issues Order of Council, expanding the list of contraband goods to be confiscated at sea
  • 20
  • Germans take Brussels
  • 23
  • Emperor of Japan declares war on Germany
  • 23
  • Germans occupy Namur, Belgium (20:467)
  • 27
  • French and British troops occupy German Togo
  • 28
  • British sink three German cruisers and two destroyers off Heligoland Bight, beginning the war at sea
  • 31
  • St. Petersburg renamed Petrograd: myth of "Russian steamroller" (unlimited number of men attacking and flattening German lines in waves) is destroyed by the fighting at Tannenberg, on the East Prussian border; over 300,000 men take part in battle, Russians mown down by German machine guns; over 90,000 Russians taken prisoner by German, only 60,000 Russians make it back to Russia

    September

    2
  • Ottoman Empire calls for general mobilization
  • 3
  • French capital moves from Paris to Bordeaux
  • 3
  • Pope Benedict XV elected
  • 4
  • Russians takes Lemberg, capital of Galicia (19: 443; 20: 484; 21: 499; 22: 516; 23: 540)
  • 5
  • US President Wilson orders US Navy to open wireless stations for use by all European nations, including Germany
  • 9
  • Germans launch counter-attack on Russians in East Prussia
  • 10
  • Six-day battle of the Marne in France ends, Allies and Germans each lose over 250,000 (20:468)
  • 11
  • Russia controls Galicia after week of fighting; 100,000 captured, 250,000 killed
  • 17
  • Germany asks US to elicit terms for peace from England, France and Russia
  • 18
  • Irish Home Rule Bill becomes law but effectively delayed until end of war (12:267; 13:289)
  • 18
  • Japan begins siege of Tsingtao in China
  • 22
  • German U-9 submarine sinks three British cruisers off Dutch coast; 1,400 dead
  • 23
  • Mexico: Villa declares war on General Carranza
  • 24
  • Germans take St. Mihiel in Alsace-Lorraine
  • 26
  • US Secretary of State W.J. Bryan protests British naval blockade, insisting on right to supply all powers

    October

    4
  • First German Zeppelin raids London (24:566; 26:621)
  • 4
  • US President Wilson appeals to the nation to pray for peace
  • 9
  • Belgium: Germans take Antwerp after 12-day siege (18:414; 19:462; 20:469; 21:499; 24:565; 25:590; 26: 618)
  • 10
  • Rumanian King Charles I dies, Ferdinand the II crowned
  • 13
  • South Africa: Boers, under General Christian De Wet, rise against martial law imposed by Britain (22:521)
  • 14
  • Belgian government flees to France
  • 15
  • British cruiser Hawke is torpedoed off the coast of Scotland
  • 15
  • US: Clayton Act passed, granting organized labor the right to strike and picket
  • 17
  • Hindenberg withdraws from Poland
  • 18
  • German U-boats raid Scapa Flow
  • 22
  • US withdraws opposition to British naval blockade and places economic support behind the Allies
  • 23
  • British Indian army troops begin invasion of Southern Mesopotamia
  • 27
  • British battleship Audacious hits German mine and sinks off Irish Coast
  • 29
  • Turkey enters war on side of Germany, attacks Odessa,Sevastopol, and Theodosia on Russian Black Sea coast (26:611)

The Journal Itself

Remains priced at sixpence an issue. Tom Titt's familiar backpage caricatures are replaced by subscription information. The regular contributors are present with more contributions than usual from Charles Brookfarmer (C.E. Bechhofer) and Peter Fanning. Financial losses are discussed in the first issue by R.H.C. with typical flair: "(1) The New Age was published at a penny for five volumes and lost £600 on each; (2) it was published for eight volumes at 3d. and lost much about the same amount on each; (3) at a shilling our circulation would in all probability not pay our postage; (4) this should be addressed to the advertisers; (5) I will say nothing about it; (6) is of doubtful advantage even if it were possible; (7) flatters London too much . . . In the absence of one of Mr. Ludovici's aristocrats, we shall indulge ourselves when the time comes in distinguished hari-kari. Now let me never mention the subject again" (01:014)

Pieces worth noting

  • "Geometric and Mechanical Splendour in Words at Liberty: A Futurist Manifesto" by F.T. Marinetti (translated by Arundel del Ré): 01:016
  • "Abstract Onomatopoeia and Numeric Sensibility" by F.T. Marinetti (translated by Arundel del Ré): 11: 255
  • "Views and Reviews" by A.E.R, review of Freud's "On Dreams," translated by M.D. Eder (02:040): begins exchange on Freud and dreams between A.E.R. and M.B. Oxon that continues throughout the volume (keyword search: dreams, Freud, psycho-analysis)
  • "Readers and Writers" in No.10: reference to "Wyndham Lewis' new quarterly magazine, Blast. Blast has the relative disadvantage of being launched without even a decadent genius to give it a symptomatic importance. It is, I find, not unintelligible-as most of the reviewers will doubtless say-but not worth the understanding" (229). It is a sign of "spiritual anarchism of modern society," and indicates that The New Age will have to be "more definite than ever in the future" with a magazine like Blast around. The following issue, No.11, however, has a correction in the same column: after reading Lewis' "Enemy of the Stars," R.H.C. writes that the pieces deserves to be called "extraordinary," even more so than the highly praised "Indissoluble Matrimony" by Rebecca West, which has "all the vices of the Blast school" (253)
  • "Notes" in No. 14 (August 6th): first issue since declaration of war, and is interesting for its tone and its summary of world events that led to the "present European situation": claim that "it is primarily to Germany that we owe the threatened Armageddon": civil revolutions in Germany, Austria , and Russia are predicted if the war does escalate, and Germany is called "the mad suffragette of Europ" — a highly charged insult considering both the anti-suffrage feelings of the journal, and for the soon-to-come expansion of women's roles due to the war
  • "Foreign Affairs" in No. 14: S. Verdad claims that he does not believe in a long "conflagration" and even if there is to be one, "we [Britain] stand to lose less in consequence of it (barring the United States) than any other Power in the world": "unless we are utterly incompetent we should lose nothing by this war"
  • No. 15: "The Official Story of the Catastrophe" by C.H. Norman, with excerpts from the relevant White Paper, including telegrams
  • "Holiday Observations" by Peter Fanning, beginning in No. 12 and continuing through No. 26: fun, revealing, and insightful observations on the various countries (including the United States) through which Fanning passes
  • "Impressions of Paris" by Alice Morning (Beatrice Hastings), beginning in No. 15 (though first appearing untitled in "Pastiche" in No.3) and continuing through No. 26: especially interesting for the representations of Paris at war, the mundane, arts, effects of soldiery, aftermath of Juarés' assassination, rationing, etc. all covered with a distinct humor, nonchalance, and poignancy

Politics/the war

As expected, most of the journal's issues after the declaration of war are concerned with the increase of hostilities and the various debates they bring with them. Because of the thoroughness of the journal's coverage of the unfolding events, the editor of this Introduction has selected a few of the most interesting and perhaps easily overlooked pieces. Again, a keyword search is the best approach to using the journal

  • Increasing concerns about India, India Council Bill, and relations with: India will give thousands of men to the war effort, especially in the early months: Nos. 5, 11, 21, 22,24, 25
  • "Notes" No. 16: discussion of censorship of war news, which would become formalized later in strict government restrictions on war information; the piece considers what this means and will mean to the press and to the public's access to information; very prescient observation that the problem with silence is that "rumour takes the place of news" as will become clear in the proliferation of atrocity reports and other forms of rumour; thoughts on the possible effects of conscription on the proletariat
  • "Notes" No. 17: reflections on the volunteer army and its insufficient numbers; "The blame, no doubt, will be laid at the door of the working classes of the country-on whom, indeed, every responsibility is finally thrust, though all privileges are denied them." The true blame, it is argued, should be laid at the feet of the classes who maintain leadership of the nation for profit. The article has a clear sense of the changes that the war will bring: "It is an event without parallel, a catastrophe of almost sublime significance, a tragedy of unimaginable meaning and possibility. Upon its conclusion depends the fate of all the empires, still in their childhood, whose fate in turn depends upon ours. The world is at the cross-roads of history" (386)
  • "Military Notes" No. 17: comments on Kitchener's army of volunteers which can't go on for long since "sooner or later the mechanics must return to the factory, the labourer to the fields" (390); foreshadows the problems and consequent social changes (specifically women's labour) that will result from a volunteer and, later, conscripted army
  • "Foreign Affairs" No. 18: S. Verdad goes to the Front and reports that everything about German atrocities reported in London is true; "Ruthless destruction, outrage, pillage, firing on wounded, the burning of defenceless villages . . ."; "Whatever could be inflicted in the nature of spiritual agony has been inflicted" (413)

The Arts

In the 14 issues before the outbreak of the war, the Arts section in the journal was perhaps the most interesting. Discussions of the arts continue during the war, sometimes directly related to the war and its effects on art and sometimes in obvious disengagement from the war. Some of the more provocative pieces are noted below

  • "Futile-ism: Or, All Cackle and No Osses" by Charles Brookfarmer in No. 7 (subtitled "Report of Lectures on 'Vital English Art' by Messrs. Marinetti and C.R. Nevinson, Dore Galleries): obvious parody and commentary on Futurism and its well-known advocates
  • No. 7: "Vital English Art: A Lecture Delivered by Mr. C.R.W. Nevinson at the Doré Galleries" co-written with F.T. Marinetti (the source of the parody mentioned above). The piece rejects the notion that contemporary art is decadent and instead identifies three schools in England that are confused with each other — Cubists, Expressionists, Vorticists (who like to call themselves Futurists). The authors claim that "we Futurists" have introduced four new elements into painting that are changing pre-conceived notions of art all over Europe: (1) no picture should be mere representation, but be instead a "plastic abstraction of an emotion remembered, seen, smelt or heard, not visually, but mentally felt"; (2) "art must be the expression, intensification and concentration of life"; (3) "art must be an intensification of life, therefore of modern life, of which the chief and distinctive feature is speed"; (4) "we claim by means of contrasted colors, lines and dimensions, it is possible to give the artist's various states of mind." Futurism is "sane," "clear and logical," and a "natural development." See T.K.L.'s response in "Pastiche," No, 8, "Wake up, England" as well as "Speeditis, Addressed to Certain Modern Maniacs," by Arthur F. Thorn, in "Contemptoraries" No. 17
  • T.E. Hulme's "Modern Art IV — Mr. David Bomberg's Show" in No. 11: M.B. Oxon replies in "Letters" No. 12
  • "Readers and Writers" No. 16: "One of the first effects of the war has been to stop people reading." "If war tries the hearts of men it also tries their style. The poems so far published have been shocking, and most of the prose has been worse." A related theme is found in "Foreign Affairs" No. 17: "The soldier seems to have anticipated the novelist . . .he has kept closer to reality than even the 'realist', Mr Wells"
  • "Readers and Writers" No. 19: R.H.C. attacks Pound and Vorticism, declaring "Vorticism is dead." He doubts that another issue of Blast will appear; comments on Pound's "petals, on a wet, black bough" and criticizes the imagery, offering in its place some fairly funny alternatives
  • "Readers and Writers" No. 22: Interesting piece by Paul Selver on the politics and procedures of publishing foreign literature, as well as comments on war literature: "Most of the war 'literature' recently let loose can justify its title scarcely in the technical sense. It is a mystery to me why people will clamour at this moment to read the genteel prattling of a Wells or a Le Queux. A sentence or two from the crudest soldiers' letters home tell me more about what I should have to expect if my turn came, than all the neatly ordered pages written by a well-fed gentleman in a leather armchair at Hampstead" (525)
  • "Readers and Writers" by R.H.C. No. 23: "It is hoped that the war will put an end to 'Imagism' in poetry and all such nonsense. A great event such as this in the world of action demands of artists and writers equally great efforts in the world of art. . . There is nothing, we may assure ourselves, in the whole school. From master to the last disciple they are empty. Once more I express the hope that they may all perish in the war" (549)

Not to be overlooked . . .

There are several short pieces, letters, excerpts, and commentaries that, while not especially relevant to any particular aspect of the war, politics, and/or art, are worth noting for the general impression they offer of both the journal's attitude toward world events and for the information they provide about the minutiae of wartime life.

  • "Hoaxing the Artists" by H. Willoughby in No. 4: recounts a supposed hoax that proves the depravity of the modern artist by leading them to eagerly anticipate a public execution
  • "Letters" in Nos. 3 and 6: exchange between Cecil Chesterton and S. Verdad on the former's attitudes towards Jews (Verdad calls Chesterton an anti-semite and jew-baiter, Chesterton declares that there is "a Jewish problem" just as there is "an Irish problem"
  • "Letters" in No. 18: "Re: German Atrocities," declares that the "Times" and the "Daily Mail" are reproducing account of German atrocities without realizing that the French are the ones using "savages" ("Turcos")
  • Advertisements throughout the Volume that mock patriotism, anti-German attacks, and the economics of war: an example-- "Patriots! Your King and Country Need You! And remember your duty to yourself! God save 5 %" (No. 15)
  • "Der Patriotismus; or, the Horrors of War" by Charles Brookfarmer No. 17: parody of patriotic fervor, cynicism regarding the different treatment of different classes
  • "Views and Reviews" No. 17: "To My Adored" accuses women of loving anything in uniform
  • "Letters" No. 17: "Women and War" by Arch. Gibbs nastily writes that suffragettes have always been calling themselves "soldiers," so why don't they go and soldier now?
  • "Die Patriotisma; or, How Women Give Themselves" by Charles Brookfarmer (C.E. Bechhofer) No.18: parody of women's emergency corps efforts
  • "Towards National Guild" No. 18 points to the irony that the same press that called strikers "enemies" and false citizens now praise them. Quotes the "Times": "In war-time, as in strike-time, the unity and courage of the miners can be taken for granted. They form the toughest and hardiest battalions in the great industrial army, and their support of the national policy is similarly unflinching and unanimous"
  • Will Dyson's "You Rich Recruiters, Play the Game" in No. 20: on recruitment, the pushing of the working class to enlist, since they are the ones desperate for money
  • Various letters and shorter pieces on vaccination (i.e. No. 22): J.L. Murray calls the Army's requirement of vaccination for all recruits "blood-poisoning"
  • "Diary of a Recruit" in "Letters" Nos. 21-26 by Charles Brookfarmer describes life in the army: in No. 24, "Corporal Peter Fanning" (contributor to the journal) replies
  • Irony of "Observations and Reflections" in Nos. 17 and 19, as they address Gaudier-Brzeska's service in France mockingly: the artist, whose "Dancer" is the MJP's logo, joined the French Army and was killed at Neuville St. Vaast June 5th 1915. He was twenty-four.

Works Consulted

  • Martin, Wallace. The New Age Under Orage: Chapters in English Cultural History. Manchester and New York: Manchester UP and Barnes and Noble, 1967.
  • Millenium Year by Year: A Chronicle of World History from AD 1000 to the Present Day.
  • 20th Century Day by Day. Clifton Daniel, ed.
  • http://spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk